Timeline

Content

Timeline Menachem Mayer

Life of Menachem Mayer

Historische Ereignisse

Growing up

Hoffenheim with synagogue (district), ca. 1930

1932: Birth

Heinz Mayer is born in Hoffenheim in 1932.

Mother: Mathilde, called Hilde Mayer, née Wertheimer (1898 in Neidenstein-1942 in Auschwitz).

Father: Karl Mayer, served in the Imperial Army in World War 1 (1894 in Frankfurt am Main- 1942 in Auschwitz)

Growing up

Together with his brother Manfred (1929 -2013), Heinz Mayer grew up in a traditional Jewish household in Hoffenheim.

On Shabbat, the family regularly visited his grandmother in Neidenstein..

Neidenstein in the 1920s - home town of Mathilde Mayer
Manfred and Heinz Mayer, Hoffenheim, 1933

World War I & Iron Cross of Merit in its significance for German Jews

World War I & Iron Cross of Merit in its Significance for Jews.

The participation of Jews in the armed forces of the Empire meant recognition and belonging to Germany.

“The Cross of Honor: […] The German Jews to whom the provisions of the Foundation apply, but beyond them all German Jews, will wear the Cross of Honor with pride and thus keep alive the memory of a great period of common German history.”
(C.V.-Zeitung (German-Jewish press) of 19.7.1934 )

Overview of Jewish holidays

Shabbat is one of the most important Jewish holidays. It is a day of rest, which begins on Friday evening and ends on Saturday evening. Traditionally, the family gathers on Friday evening and celebrates the holiday with a dinner (Kabbalat Shabbat).

Hanukkah is a Jewish festival that takes place in November or December. It is celebrated for 8 days and commemorates the uprising of the Maccabees in 167-164 BC and the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem. To commemorate it, candles are lit each of the eight days and food traditionally made with oil is eaten (doughnuts, potato pancakes). Children receive small gifts.

On Purim, the Jews celebrate the salvation of the Jewish people from the plan of the Persian minister Haman to destroy the Jews in the Persian Empire (ca. in 356 B.C.).

Pre-War

1935

Start of anti-Semitic attacks in Hoffenheim.

1938

Unemployment of the father & forced labor

1938

The desire to emigrate to the USA is first expressed.

November 9-10, 1938

Witnessing of the November pogroms & one-month imprisonment of Karl Mayer in Dachau concentration camp.

Kindergarten picture with Heinz Mayer (first row, seventh from left), Hoffenheim, 1935
Heinz and Manfred Mayer, Hoffenheim, 1939
Manfred and Heinz Mayer with their cousin Helmut Mayer, Hoffenheim, 1939
Landhauschule (formerly Pestalozzi School) in Heidelberg's Weststadt. Here Manfred and Heinz were taught in a Jewish school there from 1937.

1933

At the end of January, Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reich Chancellor – the National Socialists take power.

On April 1, the National Socialists boycott Jewish businesses.

On April 7, Jewish civil servants, with the exception of veterans of the First World War, are dismissed from their jobs.

1934

In August, President Paul von Hindenburg dies. Hitler subsequently appoints himself Führer and Reich Chancellor.

Consolidation of power and the Führer’s state (topics include 1935 Nuremberg Laws)

1935

In March, conscription is introduced in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

In September, the Nuremberg Laws are proclaimed. This manifests the legal foundation of the systematic exclusion of Jews from public life in National Socialist Germany.

1938

In February, the gradual “Anschluss” of Austria to the Third Reich begins.
In March, the Wehrmacht marches into Austria. Jewish Viennese are humiliated by the SA and by their non-Jewish neighbors and are forced to clean the sidewalks on their knees.
In a referendum, 99% in Austria and Germany vote for the Anschluss.

November pogroms (November 9-10, 1938)

In the night of November 9-10, 1938, synagogues, Jewish stores and apartments of Jews were vandalized and burned. Jewish people were dragged out of their homes, humiliated and beaten to death in the streets. Thousands of Jewish men are deported to concentration camps and released only against written confirmation of departure from the Third Reich.

World War II

End of 1938 until 1940

The Mayer family lives together in the house of the Jewish Heumann family; visiting Jewish school in Heidelberg

Mathilde and Karl Mayer, Hoffenheim, 1939
Site plan of the synagogue and apartment of the Mayer family in the area of Neue Straße
The synagogue of Hoffenheim (1990 drawn by Klaus Koch-Benamar according to description)

Deportation

Deportation of the family to Gurs on October 22, 1940.

October 1940 until February 1941

Separation from parents, the brothers are sent to a French orphanage in Aspet.

Passport photo of Mathilde Sara Mayer, 1939. The Jewish first name Sara had to be accepted at Sinsheim City Hall.
Passport photo of Karl Israel Mayer, 1939. The Jewish first name Israel had to be accepted at Sinsheim City Hall.

March 1941

Internment of the parents in Rivesaltes, the brothers are in contact by letter with their father and mother.

Last letter from parents to Manfred and Heinz, written from Rivesaltes on August 10, 1942.

August 1942

In August 1942, the parents are murdered in Auschwitz.

February 1943 until May 1944 Orphanage in Toulouse

The brothers are separated, Manfred is sent to Moissac.

Ecole Jules Ferry, Toulouse, May 1943.
Orphanage „Château de Larade“, Toulouse, 1943.

May 1944

The OSE smuggles Heinz and Manfred from France to Switzerland.

Waldrösli children's home. Heinz lived here from July 27, 1944 to January 17, 1945.
"Centre Henri Dunant", Geneva. While living here, Heinz was issued a Swiss refugee card with the number 24799 in June 1944.
In front of the Hotel Central, Engelberg, Heinz (sitting in 1 row, 4th from right).

May 1944 until 1948

Stays in ten different Jewish religious children’s homes in Switzerland and Torah studies.

Gestapo list of Jews expelled from Baden on October 22, 1940, including all names of the Mayer family
“Liste de transfèrement à la Maison des Pupilles d'Aspet" with the names of Heinz and Manfred Mayer, Gurs, February 23, 1941.
Heinz (above, 2nd from left) and Manfred (above, 3rd from left), Aspet, 1941
Heinz (1st row, 2nd from left) and Manfred (back row, 3rd from left), Aspet, 1942
Manfred and Heinz Mayer at the orphanage in Aspet, 1942
Portrait photos of Manfred and Heinz Mayer, Aspet, 1942
Heinz in Aspet, 1942
Heinz (Henri) at the orphanage "Château de Larade", 1943
Class picture of Ecole Jules Ferry, Toulouse, 1943. Heinz 1st row, 2nd from right.
Heinz after his arrival in Geneva, May 25, 1944
Heinz im Kinderheim Waldrösli, Schwendibach, Kanton Bern, Schweiz, Herbst 1944
Heinz (above left) and his friend Alfred Stein (above right), Aliya Heim (Hotel Central), Engelberg, Canton Obwalden, Switzerland, 1945

1939

First of September 1939. Nazi Germany invades Poland, thus provoking the Second World War in Europe.

1940

End of the War of the Seats between France and Germany. In mid-May, Germany violates neutrality with the Benelux countries and invades Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, as well as France. Occupying these states on June 25, 1940.

Ghettoization

In the same year, ghettos were established in Eastern Europe. In the German-occupied West, on the other hand, Jewish residential districts and so-called Judenhäuser were built. Both happened in order to exclude the Jews from the population.

Daily life in the Gurs camp

Internment in the Gurs camp is characterized by poor hygienic conditions, hunger, violence, cold and disease. Nevertheless, the situation allows educational events to be organized. Cultural events and religious life actively take place.

Camp de Gurs, Département Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Frankreich.

The rescue of children

Through the help of relief organizations, such as the Red Cross, Jewish self-help, the OSE or the Quakers, not only was food delivered to Gurs, which saved lives, but children were also placed in the hands of these organizations to save their lives.

Postcard showing the orphanage "La Maison des Pupilles de la Nation", Aspet, Haute-Garonne department, 1938.

OSE​

The OSE was a Jewish relief organization. With the rise to power of the National Socialists, a network of orphanages was set up in Paris. When France was occupied, the OSE orphanages went underground in June 1942. At the risk of their own lives, OSE members placed Jewish children with foster families; hundreds were smuggled out of France into neutral Switzerland.

Letters

Because up to 8000 letters are written per day, the censors cannot censor everything and there is a clearer view of camp life from Gurs.

Occupation of Vichy France by the German Wehrmacht

On November 8, 1942, the Allied forces landed in French North Africa (Algeria and Morocco). Thereupon, the Wehrmacht invaded the previously unoccupied territory in the south of France to take complete control of the country.

Germany's surrender and liberation

On January 27, 2022, the concentration and extermination camp Auschwitz Birkenau is liberated. This is followed by the liberation of other concentration camps in by the Red Army and Allied forces. On the night of May 8-9, 1945, Nazi Germany capitulates.

Postwar

1946

First meeting since 1942 with his brother in Switzerland & emigration to the USA of Manfred Mayer: from now on Fred Raymes

Etz-Haim Torah and Talmud High School, "Villa Quisisana", Montreux, Canton Vaud, Switzerland
Heinz Mayer studying, Montreux, 1947

September 1948

Illegal emigration to Israel by ship on the “Atzma’ut”.

Heinz Mayer changes his name and from now on is called: Menachem Mayer.

Arrived in Haifa on the Atzma'ut (formerly Pan Crecsent) on 3 Tischri 5709/ 6 October 1948.

1948

Menachem finds work as a messenger boy and harvest worker in a kibbuz.

Menachem (Heinz) Mayer (in the center), Masmiya (now Mashmiya Shalom), Summer 1949.

1950 until 1952

Menachem is drafted into the Israeli military service.

Menachem Mayer (pictured below right) during his service in the Israeli army, 1951.
Menachem Mayer (standing, 1st from left) during his military service, 1951

1952

Co-founder of Kibbutz “Sha’alavim”, expert in sheep breeding.

Foundation of Kibbutz Sha'alvim, 1951
Foundation of Kibbutz Sha'alvim, 1951
First houses in Kibbutz Sha'alvim, 1956
Kibbuz Sha’avlim, 1957

1956

Wedding with Chava van Cleef from Cologne.

Chava van Cleef and Menachem Mayer, 1956
Wedding of Chava van Cleef and Menachem Mayer at Kibbuz Sha'alvim, October 23, 1956.
Wedding ceremony under a chuppah

1957, 1959, 1965

Birth of their three children Jonathan 1957, Michal 1959, Zvi 1965

Menachem and Chava with Jonathan, Kibbutz Sha'alvim, 1958

1957

Move to the Carmel

Teacher in the children’s home “Yemin Ord” and study of natural sciences and final diploma.

1963

Move to Jerusalem for studies. Beginning of a new phase in life.

1967

Bachelor’s degree from the Hebrew University in Education and Zoology.

In June of the same year, Menachem fights in the 6 Days War in Jerusalem.

1968

Menachem becomes superintendent of science subjects for all schools in Jerusalem.

1972

First reunion of the brothers after 26 years in Israel.

1974

Menachem visits Hoffenheim for the first time since the deportation of the family.

1974 until today

Regular visits to Hoffenheim to this day, close friendship with people in the region

1974

Master of Science in Natural Sciences

1980

PhD from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

1981

Appointed superintendent of the Jerusalem region.

Heinz, Aliya Heim (Hotel Central), Engelberg, Canton Obwalden, Switzerland, 1946
Heinz Mayer in the Etz-Haim Torah and Talmud High School, Montreux, Canton Vaud, Switzerland, 1947.
Heinz Mayer, Montreux, Kanton Vaud, Schweiz, 1947
Heinz Mayer (r.) with a friend, Montreux, Switzerland, 1947
Menachem (standing right) at work in the Kibbuz Sha'alvim, 1951
Menachem Mayer (standing right) pitching a tent during his first days at Kibbuz Sha'alvim near Latrun, 1951.
Menachem Mayer (standing, 1st from left) during his military service, 1951
Menachem Mayer (standing left) during his first days at Kibbutz Sha'alvim near Latrun, 1951.
Menachem Mayer at Kibbutz Sha’alvim, 1955
Menachem Mayer and Chava van Cleef, Kibbutz Sha’alvim, 1955
Menachem Mayer raising sheep at Kibbutz Sha'alvim, 1956.
Menachem with Michal (left) and Jonathan (right), Yemin Orde, Israel, 1961
Jonathan, Chava, Zvi and Michal Mayer, 1966
Michal, Chava, Menachem and Zvi, 1971
Zvi and Menachem, Jerusalem, 1971
Menachem Mayer during a visit to Munich in 1974
Menachem Mayer, 1976

Survivors in the DP Camps

After the liberation, many survivors came to displaced persons camps and were cared for there, as they could not go back to the countries of their origin due to anti-Semitism and hatred. There, Jews were prepared by the JOINT for their departure to the USA and by the Jewish Agency for their departure to the British Mandate Territory of Palestine (today Israel).

May 1948 Foundation of the State of Israel

Following a UN vote in 1947 for the establishment of a Jewish homestead, the State of Israel was proclaimed in May 1948. Immediately after, Israel had to make a stand against the armed forces of their neighboring Arab states in the War of Independence .

Kibbuzim

Voluntary agricultural production cooperatives in Israel. There, life mostly takes place together. There is common upbringing of children, as well as education and common cooking and dining, like a communal work culture.

Jekkes​

Jekkes is a term for German-speaking Jews in Israel. German-speaking Jews moved to the then British Mandate territory of Palestine (now Israel) between 1933 and 1939. Due to their habit of almost always wearing suits they were so called by the local population.

1961 Eichmann in Jerusalem

The Israeli secret service Mossad succeeds in bringing Adolf Eichmann from Argentina to Jerusalem and bringing him to trial. Eichmann was an organizer of the Holocaust and managed the transports to the concentration and extermination camps.

1963 Frankfurt Auschwitz trials

Hessian Chief Public Prosecutor Fritz Bauer led the first major war crimes trial in post-war Germany. The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial was the beginning of the end of silence in Germany about the Holocaust, as many survivors testified about their suffering in the concentration camp. This trial and the related testimonies were broadcast on the television and radio sets.

1965 Diplomatic relations between Germany and Israel

Establishment of diplomatic relations between Germany and Israel. Strong protests in Israel against the reparations agreement and against the rapprochement between these two states, twenty years after the Holocaust.

1967 Six-Day War

Israel preempts an attack by Syria, Egypt and Jordan and defeats these states in a pre-emptive war. It follows the unification of a divided city of Jerusalem, as well as the conquest and securing of the Golan Heights.

1970 Willy Brandt's kneeling

During Willy Brandt’s state visit to Warsaw in 1970, Brandt knelt at the Warsaw Ghetto memorial and was the first German head of government to admit responsibility for the crimes of National Socialism.

1972 Munich massacre

On September 5, Palestinian terrorists carry out an attack on the Israeli team at the Munich Olympics. It began as a hostage situation and ended with the murder of all eleven Israeli hostages and a Munich police officer.

Yom Kippur War

On the highest Jewish holiday Yom Kippur, several Arab states invade Israel. Israel is able to hold its ground and wins the war with high human losses.

1979 Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel

Israel and Egypt conclude a peace treaty in Washington. Egypt becomes the first Arab state to recognize Israel.

1985 until today

1985

Menachem becomes envoy of the Jewish Agency in Paris. Several years head of the department of Jewish education in Jewish communities in France, Belgium and Switzerland.

1990

First visit of Fred and Menachem to Auschwitz.

Menachem Mayer in front of the gatehouse of Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, Summer 1990
Menachem Mayer (in white shirt) at Auschwitz with a group of young Israelis.
Joint visit to Hoffenheim, September 1990 (from left to right: Pastor Matthias Uhlig, Fred Raymes, Ludwig Streib, Menachem Mayer, Werner Rudisile, Doris Uhlig)

1990s until today

Menachem’s appearance as a witness at schools

1996

Awarded the French government prize “L’Ordre des Palmes Academiques”.

Awarded the French government prize "L'Ordre des Palmes Academiques".

1996 and subsequent years

Menachem becomes director of the Israeli Ministry of Culture and a delegate to UNESCO.

2001

Publication of the life story of the brothers in Hebrew.

2002

Publication Menachem’s biography in English language

2005

Publication in German combined with visit of the brothers in Hoffenheim and installation of a memorial plate with names of deported Jews at the town hall in Hoffenheim.

Memorial plaque with the 18 names of Jewish citizens deported from Hoffenheim to Gurs on October 22, 1940.

2007

Premiere in Israel of the film ” Menachem & Fred – Reunion in Hoffenheim”.

2009

Award of the film at the Berlinale with the “Cinema For Peace Award” as “The Most Inspirational Movie Of The Year”.

German premiere of “Menachem & Fred” at the Sinsheim Citydome with the two brothers, the two Israeli directors and the German producer in attendance.

Award of the film "menachem & fred" at the Berlinale with the "Cinema for Peace Award for Most Inspirational Movie of the Year", Berlin, February 9, 2009. From left to right: Fred Raymes, Dr. Menachem Mayer, Jens Meurer (producer), Ofra Tevet and Ronit Kertsner (director)
German premiere of the film in Sinsheim, September 30, 2009 - After the reception by Mayor Rolf Geinert in the Sinsheim City Hall
In the Citydome Sinsheim, Jens Meurer (producer), Dr. Rüdiger Hopp, Dr. Menachem Mayer, Fred Raymes
Over 200 invited guests attended the premiere in Sinsheim
Lydia Raymes, the two directors Ofra Tevet and Ronit Kertsner, Fred Raymes, Dr. Menachem Mayer in the Sinsheim Citydome.
Menachem Mayer and Fred Raymes
Menachem Mayer and Fred Raymes at a book signing.

2010

Memorial stone inauguration as part of event for the Kraichgau region “70 years of deportations to Gurs”. In the same year death of Chava Mayer.

Press release:
Albert Schweitzer School, Michael Heitz (Obermayer Award/German Teacher Award), Jüdisches Leben Kraichgau e. V. Overall project description, supporting events in the region at the time for: 70 years of Gurs.

With the project group of the Albert Schweitzer School in Sinsheim, project leader Christine Kluge (left) and Bernhard Berger from the play mobile in the Kraichgau region (right).
Fred Raymes, Menachem Mayer, Karl-Heinz Hess, local chairman Hoffenheim
Commemoration ceremony for the Kraichgau region in the community hall of Hoffenheim, October 20, 2010

2012

Inauguration of the “Menachem and Fred Trail”.
Translation of the biography into French

Logo of the "Menachem and Fred Trail" from Hoffenheim to Neidenstein
Unveiling of the plaque at Hoffenheim train station on the occasion of the inauguration of the "Menachem and Fred" walking trail on July 12, 2012.
Fred and Stefanie Siegmayer, members of the "Mahnmahlprojekt" from 2010
Lydia and Fred Raymes in the Hoffenheim Forest
At the end point of the Trail in Neidenstein with players of the U16 of TSG Hoffenheim, July 12, 2012

2013

Fred Raymes dies

2017

Contributor to the film project “Zahor – remember” with Ilay Elmkies

1st meeting between Ilay Elmkies and Menachem Mayer on the occasion of a preliminary meeting for the Centropa "Zahor film project", Metropolis cinema Frankfurt/M., June 28, 2017.
German premiere "Zahor - Erinnere Dich", Citydome Sinsheim, June 12, 2018
Menachem Mayer and Ilay Elmkies at the German premiere of "Zahor - Erinnere Dich", Citydome Sinsheim, June 12, 2018.
Ilay Elmkies, Sinsheim's Lord Mayor Jörg Albrecht, Edward Serotta, Dietmar Hopp and Menachem Mayer at the Citydome Sinsheim
Fabian Rühle (Director of Education at Centropa Germany) and Menachem Mayer
Dietmar Hopp and Menachem Mayer at the subsequent reception at the Sinsheim City Hall, June 12, 2018.

2021

Planning further visits to the Hoffenheim region

2022

TSG – Centropa memorial trip in the footsteps of Fred and Menachem “Never forget – N’oublie jamais”.

TSG - Centropa memorial trip in the footsteps of Fred and Menachem "Never forget - N'oublie jamais", May 22 - 29, 2022.
TSG - Centropa memorial trip in the footsteps of Fred and Menachem "Never forget - N'oublie jamais", May 22 - 29, 2022.
Video conference with Dr. Menachem Mayer during the memorial trip, May 25, 2022.

2022

Verlegung der Stolpersteine für die Großmutter Mina Wertheimer und den Onkel Emanuel Wertheimer
Laying of the Stolpersteine for the grandmother Mina Wertheimer and the uncle Emanuel Wertheimer (Joel Reich, Zvi Mayer, Dr. Menachem Mayer, Jonathan Mayer, Ilana Mayer, Gunter Demnig), Bruchsal, June 22, 2022.
Stolpersteine for the grandmother Mina Wertheimer and the uncle Emanuel Wertheimer
Menachem Mayer as a delegate to the UNESCO Education Conference, Paris, 1995.
Menachem Mayer and Fred Raymes, with Chava and Lydia, during a stay in Canada, 1998.
Karola Mühlberger and Fred Raymes (on the right MdB Gert Weisskirchen) on the occasion of the inauguration of the memorial plaque at Hoffenheim town hall, September 4, 2005
Lior Mayer lights candles with her father Zvi in memory of Karl and Hilde Mayer.
Omer Tur-Paz, David Raymes and Zvi Mayer placing an inscription plaque for Maier Wertheimer (16.2.1862 - 01.04.1920), the grandfather of Fred and Menachem, Jewish Cemetery Waibstadt, September 4, 2005
Michal Tur-Paz and Suzie Biagi placing an inscription plaque for Hannchen Mayer (August 17,1872 - October 10,1900) the grandmother of Fred and Menachem, Jewish Cemetery Waibstadt, September 4, 2005.
Gala dinner at St. Leon-Rot Golf Club, September 4, 2005: seated on the lawn: Hadass Mayer, Ilana Mayer, Yuval Tur-Paz, Shachar Mayer, Rotem Mayer, Roni Tur-Paz, Cameron Raymes, Connor Raymes; seated: Dietmar Hopp, Fred Raymes, Karola Mühlberger, Menachem Mayer with Nizan, Rüdiger Hopp, Brianna Raymes; 3rd row: Zwi Mayer with Lior, Michal Tur-Paz, Ayala Mayer, Ingrid Sacks, Lydia Raymes, Chava Mayer, Katie Herr, Suzie Biagi, Eric Biagi, Charles Sacks; 4th row: Omer Tur-Paz, Renee Sacks-Day, Jonathan Mayer, Livnat Mayer, Merav Mayer, David Raymes, Joyce Raymes, Tal Tur-Paz.
Lydia and Fred Raymes, Menachem and Chava Mayer, St. Leon-Rot, September 4, 2005
Film “reunion in Hoffenheim - menachem & fred“
Filming at the former "Maison des Pupilles de la Nation", Aspet, November 15,2005
Fred and Menachem, Jerusalem, 2007
Fred and Menachem, Jerusalem, 2007
Visit from Kraichgau: Michael, Johanna, Lisa-Damaris and Margit Heitz at Menachem and Chava Mayer, Kiryat Shmuel, Jerusalem, May 15, 2008
Visit from Kraichgau: Michael, Johanna, Lisa-Damaris and Margit Heitz at Menachem and Chava Mayer, Kiryat Shmuel, Jerusalem, May 15, 2008
Menachem Mayer, Sinsheim, October 23, 2008
Fred and Menachem in Hoffenheim, October 1, 2009
Visit to Albert Schweitzer School Sinsheim, October 1, 2009 Ovra Tevet, Christine Kluge, teacher for art at ASS, Menachem Mayer, Michael Heitz, class teacher of 2BKSP1, Fred Raymes.
Fred in conversation with students of class 2BKSP1 of the Fachschule für Sozialpädagogik at the Albert-Schweitzer-Schule Sinsheim, October 1, 2009
Christine Kluge and Menachem Mayer, October 1, 2009
Menachem Mayer and Fred Raymes in front of the first roll-up of the traveling exhibition "Torn from oblivion - Jewish life in the Kraichgau".
Fred last visit to Jerusalem on the occasion of Menachem's 80th birthday, March 2012.
Menachem's 80th birthday celebration with Nili Ronen, Fred and Lydia Raymes Jerusalem, March 2012.
Albrecht Lohrbächer on the square of the former synagogue of Hoffenheim, July 12, 2012.
Rest at Gigglerskopf, Zuzenhausen district
Menachem and his family, Jerusalem 2013
Menachem and Nili Ronen in Norway, 2016
Menachem Mayer and Nili Ronen visit Kraichgau. Grave of Mayer Wertheimer, Waibstadt Jewish Cemetery, July 13, 2017.
Menachem Mayer and Albrecht Lohrbächer, Sinsheim-Weiler, July 13, 2017
Fabian Rühle, Menachem Mayer, Ilay Elmkies, Tanja Eckstein (interviewer of Dr. Menachem Mayer) and Edward Serotta at the panel discussion in Citydome Sinsheim
Menachem Mayer and Ilay Elmkies
The director of Centropa, Edward Serotta, elaborates on the genesis of the film
Ilay Elmkies and Menachem Mayer at Citydome Sinsheim, June 12, 2018.
Sandra Simovich. Consul General for the State of Israel, brings greetings from the Embassy of Israel.
Group picture with Menachem Mayer and his family as well as the people involved in the film and representatives of the respective organizations and sponsors of "Zahor - remember".
Ilay Elmkies, Menachem Mayer, Edward Serotta, Sandra Simovich and Dietmar Hopp
Menachem Mayer and Dietmar Hopp, June 12, 2018
Menachem Mayer and his children Zwi and Michal on the "Menachem and Fred Hiking Trail", information board at Gigglerskopf (Zuzenhausen), June 13, 2018.
On the traces of Jewish life in the Kraichgau - Old Synagogue Eppingen with wedding stone (from left to right: Nili Ronen, Tanja Eckstein, Michael Heitz, Zwi Mayer, Menachem Mayer, Michal Tur-Paz and Jonathan Mayer), Eppingen, June 13, 2018.
Final picture in Sinsheim-Weiler, (1st row: Tanja Eckstein, Nili Ronen, Menachem Mayer, Margit Heitz; 2nd row: Jonathan Mayer, Zwi Mayer, Michal Tur-Paz, Michael Heitz, June 13, 2018.
Menachem, shortly after his 90th birthday, Jerusalem March 2022
Menachem, shortly after his 90th birthday, Jerusalem March 2022
Centropa team member Maximilian von Schoeler visiting the former Gurs internment camp, May 24, 2022.
Final picture before continuing to Aspet/Toulouse
Abschlussveranstaltung auf der Gedenkstätte „Niemals vergessen – N’oublie jamais
"Natural scientists among themselves". Wolfgang Schick (participant in the TSG/Centropa memorial trip) and Menachem Mayer in Bruchsal, June 22, 2022 at the memorial "Niemals vergessen - N'oublie jamais
Menachem Mayer, Michael Heitz and Ludwig Streib, Bruchsal, June 22, 2022
Menachem and his family in 2022

1985 Glasnost and Perestroika

Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the CPSU. In the following years, reforms are carried out in the Soviet Union under his aegis. The terms perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (transparency) stand for the change in the USSR.

1988 March of the Living

Memorial march from Auschwitz concentration camp to Birkenau death camp. Since 1988, traditionally held on Yom Hashoa (Israeli Holocaust Remembrance Day). More than 100,000 people take part in this protest of mostly young Jews from all over the world against Holocaust denial. Since 2005, non-Jewish delegations from Germany and Austria have also taken part in this march.

Fall of the wall

On the evening of November 9, there were mass protests throughout the GDR. Following public pressure in the GDR, it was decided to reintroduce freedom of travel, and when the Chairman of the Council of State, Egon Krenz, announced that the border would be opened, the Wall was stormed by the Berlin population.

1990 Reunification of Germany

On October 3, 1990, Germany is reunified. According to the Two (GDR-BRD) plus Four (France, USA, USSR, Great Britain) Treaty, it is decided that the GDR will join the Federal Republic.

1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Gorbachev fails to reform the USSR. The Soviet Union is dissolved.

1994 Oslo Accords

After several years of violent confrontations between Israelis and Palestinians, a temporary peace agreement was reached in Oslo in 1995 that established Palestinian self-government. u.

1995 Assassination of Itzhak Rabin

In November 1995, Israeli Prime Minister Itzhak Rabin is shot dead after a peace rally. This shifts the hope for a final peace between Israel and the Palestinians.

2000 Second Intifada

With the lynching of two Israeli soldiers in Ramallah, the Second Intifada begins as a wave of terror in Israel. It lasted until 2005 and ended with your cease-fire, and with the construction of the barrier wall to the West Bank, the terrorist attacks decreased.

Angela Merkel becomes German Chancellor

After the 2005 Bundestag elections, Angela Merkel leads a grand coalition in Germany. She is the first woman in as head of government in Germany.

Barak Obama becomes President of the USA

Barack Obama becomes the 44th U.S. president. He is the first African American to hold this office

2010 Arab Spring

In the course of the Arab Spring, which begins in December, the heads of state of Tunisia, Libya and Egypt are overthrown. Civil wars also break out in Libya and Syria, resulting in several thousand deaths.

2014 Maidan Uprising

After the Ukrainian parliament refuses to allow President Viktor Yanukovych to sign the association agreement with the EU, demonstrations and unrest break out in Kiev. Ultimately, Yanukovych is deposed. This is followed by violent clashes between government troops and pro-Russian separatists in the east and south of the country.

2015 European migrant crisis

Germany decides Sept. 4 to open the German border to thousands of civil war refugees from Syria and Afghanistan. This decision triggers discussions at home and in the EU.

2020 COVID-19 pandemic

The spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 leads with worldwide far-reaching consequences for society, economy and sports. There are restrictions in social life in almost all countries worldwide.

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On February 24, Russia invades Ukraine. In response, the West imposes sanctions against Russia. Russia then raises gas and oil prices. Start of inflation in Europe